What OS are you using? XP, Vista, Win 7, Tiger, Leopard...?
EDIT: Sorry, waited around for your reply but have to leave now. I'm sure once you supply you OS info someone else will chime in with an answer for you. The files are located in different locations depending on which system you're using.
Paired Bluetooth devices (which can only be used if restored to the same phone that did the backup)
Keychain (this includes email account passwords, Wi-Fi passwords, and passwords you enter into websites and some other applications. The keychain can only be restored from backup to the same iPhone or iPod touch. If you are restoring to a new device, you will need to fill in these passwords again.)
With iPhone 2.0 and later
List of External Sync Sources (Mobile Me, Exchange ActiveSync)
Microsoft Exchange account configurations
Nike+iPod saved workouts and settings
App Store Application data (except the Application itself, its tmp and Caches folder).
New with iPhone 3.0
Videos in camera roll
Per app preferences allowing use of location services
Offline web application cache/database
Autofill for web pages
Trusted hosts that have certificates that cannot be verified
Web sites approved to get the location of the device
Maybe you should buy an inexpensive netbook (an oxymoron I suppose) and take that on your travels. That is what I do when I'm away for over a week. If you backup before you leave and signup for a mobileme account (if you don't already have one) you will be in good shape. Any APPs you buy while away will be available for you to download in the event you lost your phone. Try not to worry and have a great time!