I once moved a bunch of songs in windows media player all to the same album. I then transferred the music to iTunes. Because the original path name had the same album listed it would show that album artwork in iTunes. I figured it out and move the songs to iTunes from the original albums and then the artwork was correct.
Plug in your phone, uncheck all of your music and sync your phone, this will take all your music off your phone, re-sync and see if that helps, if that doesn't help update your phone to the latest firmware, that did it for me. All my music on my phone is directly from iTunes, I had bunch of songs that always showed a blue October album cover. Nothing worked other than the update. If you're jailbroken and the first advice doesn't work and you don't want to restore and re-jailbreak just deal with it for now.
Whatever computer you use to sync your phone with.
Transfer all your purchases first, click on where it says "file" and select transfer all your purchases from whatever your name is iPhone, then uncheck your music from the iPhone summary tab, hit sync.
Ok thats weird, when it happens to me it's usually when a song is playing, and when I'm on the artist track screen....maybe try deselecting those albums that appear to be affected and syncing, then re-syncing those certain albums, obviously it's not your whole library so it appears to be just something going on with those specific ones.